(1) Reading is only the beginning of the learning process. Students learn more and remember more when they are asked to express their thoughts in writing. Writing about an issue makes us actively engaged in our own learning and enables us to reflect upon the material covered, to clarify our own thoughts and to ask questions. If we merely read a text, we will forget most of what we have read; but writing will reinforce and consolidate our learning.

(2) It is important that you write your journal entry before coming to class. When you have attempted to understand a text, and have worked out your ideas about it through writing, then you can benefit from class discussion. You can see the limitations of your views, you will be exposed to other perspectives, and you will be in a position to ask questions about anything you did not understand. If you come unprepared, you will not benefit from what goes on in class, and you time in class will be largely wasted. You will thereby increase your workload because you will have to think through all the issues for yourself. It is not acceptable merely to repeat in your journal what was said in class. You need to express your own views, supporting these with detailed reference to the text.

(3) If she follows the foregoing instructions, by the time the student finishes the course, she will have a journal of considerable length, full of her own writings. This will be a considerable achievement, and a concrete manifestation of the student’s learning throughout the year. If you write your journal conscientiously, you will have no problem with the final exam.


For every text that we study, you should write a minimum of one page of double-spaced type. Generally, you should be writing two pages per class. If an entire class is devoted to one text, you should write a minimum of two pages. Please remember, however, that if you write the minimum, you will receive the minimum grade. A grade “A” journal will typically have 2-3 pages per entry. Remember that the grade you receive is up to you, not me. If you give me a first-rate journal, you will receive a first-rate grade.


(1) First, let us stipulate what you should not write about:

Do not write a summary of the text.
Do not write an entry based on class discussion.
Do not include any biographical information about the author.

(2) Here is what you should write about: your journal entry should be based solely on the text, and should conduct a close analysis of the text, citing page numbers, to demonstrate that you have read it carefully. You do not need to use long quotations but you should ensure that you refer to several parts of the text. You should spend about 20 minutes on each entry. This is not a formal essay, but neither is it a mere “response” journal. The following guidelines will give you some idea of how to go about this.


(1) Essentially, you need to identify a central theme of the text and to write about that. There is a distinction between theme and subject-matter, or what the text is about: for example, we might say that James Joyce’s story The Dead is about Irish middle-class life or a middle-class man and his wife. But the theme will be something like “death” or “love” or “the inauthenticity of middle-class life.” Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is about a voyage up the river Congo; but its theme might be something like “race” or “imperialism” or “the breakdown of European values.”

(2) Regarding this theme, you can such questions as: How is this theme developed? Is it a logical argument or appearance thereof? Is it an emotional progression? A catalogue? Or an analysis of external objects?

(3) When you write about any literary text, you can approach it in terms of both its content or what it says, and its form or how it says something. Here are some questions you can ask about poetry and fiction:

(i) Paraphrase a poem to elucidate its content.
(ii) Consider the central oppositions/contrasts which structure a poem.
(iii) What is the basic theme of the poem? How is this theme developed?
(iv) What are the formal devices used in the poem?
(v) Are there any central symbols/metaphors/images on which the progress of the poem depends?
(vi) Does the poem appeal primarily to the intellect or emotion?

(i) Does the story have a central aim or purpose? What is the basic theme?
(ii) How is this theme/purpose developed through the plot?
(iii) Describe the central characters in the story and their attributes?
(iv) Show how various details contribute to the portrayal of a given character.
(v) Is there a central conflict in the story, between characters/perspectives?
(vi) Describe the basic structure of the story.
(vii) What kind of narrator tells the story? Who is the intended audience?

In one journal entry, you will not be able to write about all these issues. You can simply choose one theme, or one character, or other element of the text that interests you and write about that. The important thing is to demonstrate your close engagement with the text. And you are not required to agree with any of my views. In fact, I would prefer that you disagreed with me; this is more interesting and shows that you have thought about the text for yourself. If you find a particular text difficult or even impossible to understand, you can write down a series of questions relating to various passages, and we can address your queries in class.